This report determined whether the dehydrogenation of EB is an effective both chemically and economically and viable method of producing styrene.
The paper sought to determine this by analysing the production process, cost of the building and running a styrene plant, and the chemistry involved. Ethylbenzene is harmful, a flammable liquid and is a severe eye irritant. It is the reactant used in the main process of the plant.
It dehydrogenates to form styrene as the main reaction, but other side reactions form toluene and benzene. This chemical would cause problems with fires on site. Styrene is a flammable liquid, mildly toxic, harmful when inhaled for example it may cause headache, nausea, dizziness, muscle weakness; produces central nervous system depression; irritates nose, lungs and throat. Styrene is confirmed as a carcinogen. It should be produced by the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. This chemical can produce major injuries if a fire starts on site.
The best condition for this chemical to be stored is on site for as short a time as possible, before being transported away by the tanker. Due styrene is flammable liquid it should be stored away from any other flammable substances such as ethylbenzene, toluene and extra care should be taken to inform the fire services of the danger, to ensure it is dealt with it promptly and properly. Pressure can build in component and they need to be checked for weakened points. Toluene is very flammable, can cause irritation to skin and is harmful if inhaled.
It is formed as one of the side reactions in the reactor, when styrene reacts with the hydrogen formed. Loss of containment would cause problems, due to the additional fire risk.
The chemical should be kept away from flammable chemicals. Benzene can cause cancer, is toxic, very flammable, irritating to eyes and skin. It is harmful for example it can cause lung damage if swallowed. Benzene is formed in the process by the reaction of ethylbenzene and hydrogen. Benzene is the most violent chemical in this process. Loss of containment could have very serious off-site effects.Styrene is the monomer used to make polystyrene, which has many uses .
In the current process, styrene is produced by the dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene. There is very little ethylbenzene sold commercially: most ethylbenzene manufacturers convert it directly into styrene in the same manufacturing complex.
The project is a continuation of sorts of the project you completed last semester for ChE However, there are important differences in the two, including production rate, assumptions and products. You should use this as a starting point. However, any change that you can justify on economic grounds and that does not violate the laws of nature is not only allowed but encouraged.
Your assignment is to develop an optimum case based upon an objective function defined later. It is your job to define the decision variables, and to choose and implement a method to arrive at an optimum design. Process Description See Figure 1.
The raw material is ethylbenzene, and steam is fed as an inert.
In the suggested process, ethylbenzene is preheated in E to a saturated vapor. This is then mixed with steam produced from the fired heater H The steam provides the heat of reaction and serves as an inert diluent to help shift the reaction to the right. Steam also tends to limit side reactions and helps to extend catalyst life by reducing coke formation on the catalyst.
The ratio of steam to ethylbenzene entering reactor R in Stream 6 ranges between 6 and The main reaction:. Documents: Advanced Search Include Citations. Abstract Styrene is the monomer used to make polystyrene, which has many uses . Powered by:.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Nurlina Syahiirah. Although styrene was discovered way back inits commercial production and applications were developed in the s.
Post world war period witnessed a boom in styrene demand due to its application in the manufacture of synthetic rubber. This led to a dramatic increase in styrene capacity. Styrene has wide application in producing plastic and synthetic rubber industry.
It is mostly used in manufacturing of polystyrene PSacrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene ABSstyrene- acrylonitrile SANstyrene-butadiene rubber SBR and lattices, unsaturated polyester resins UP resins and miscellaneous uses like textile auxiliaries, pigment binders polyester resin, aromatics and intermediate industries.
Worldwide, there are commonly five methods of manufacturing of styrene such as catalytic dehydrogenation of ethylbenzene, Oxidation of ethylbenzene to ethyl hyroperoxideside-chain chlorination of ethlybenzene followed by dechlorination, side-chain of chlorination of ethylbenzne hydrolysis to the corresponding alcohols followed by dehydration and pyrolysis of petroleum recovery.
Calculation Of Mass Balance In Styrene Production
In an effort to find a sustainable method of manufacturing of styrene from ethylbenzene, several design objectives were chosen as a necessity for the proposed system such as identifying suitable catalyst, the economic factor, environmental factor, strategic location to build for styrene plant, the design specifications on the reactors and distillation column used in the plant, the market price and also not to forget the safety issue relating to the plant.
Obtaining this data was very crucial before scaling up the design of a complete industrial plant. From this variable aspect, we conclude the proposed plant design would indeed be economically viable and profit inducing. Special gratitude to our lecturer, Encik Omar Syah Jehan, who guide us in the selection of idea and give the best suggestion and step-by-step guidelines for during the improvement of the report.
Last but not least, bundle of thank you for all the team member whose invested the highest effort, time and energy in achieving the objective of the report. There is a significant demand for it and cutting costs even a few cents per pound will yield large savings. These savings can then be passed to the consumer and will ultimately make styrene products like polystyrenes and ABS polymers available to more people worldwide. We believe it is feasible to simulate a process for producing styrene that will make this possible.
The idea is to use cheaper raw materials, namely ethane instead of ethylene, and utilize the fundamentals of the process, such as a dehydrogenation unit, to convert the ethane to ethylene in the process. An advantage to the new process is that it starts with a less expensive raw material, ethane, instead of ethylene. Styrene also can be used as the yeast-like fungus Exophiala jeanselmei that can be used to treat air polluted with styrene. This derivative of benzene is a colourless oily liquid that evaporates easily and has a sweet smell, although high concentrations have a less pleasant odour.
Styrene is the precursor to polystyrene and several copolymers. The chemical structure of the styrene is shown in the figure 1. The production of styrene using many equipment such as reactor with floating head shell and tubereactor feed heating system 3 unitreactor effluent cooling system 2 unit3-phases separator, pre-separating effluent heat exchanger, column 1, column 2, column 3 and column intermediate cooling system. Figure 1 — Ethyl Benzene Molecular Structure A by-product of the process is diethyl benzene DEB that is an intermediate in divinyl-benzene manufacture.
Since the demand for styrene is far greater than the demand for divinyl-benzene, the selectivity for our process should favour ethyl benzene production. Ethyl benzene is produced by coupling ethylene and benzene with an acidic catalyst. Diethyl benzene forms when ethylene reacts with ethyl benzene. The formation of multiply- substituted benzenes is limited by running the reaction with a large excess of benzene.
The selectivity of these reactions is determined by the feed ratio and processing conditions. As we know that production of styrene can jump into polystyrene so it is the profitable production due to the high demand from the customer to produce the polystyrene. Consumer demand for styrene derived products may fluctuate as well with less use of plastics and polystyrene products amid environmental concerns.
As a result, the selling price of styrene could decrease and potentially affect profitability. Competitors in the market for styrene production may also influence the cost value of products, as well as the enterprise rate. Styrene World Market Outlook and Forecast up to grants access to the unique data on the examined market.
Having used a large variety of primary and secondary sources, the research team combined, canvassed and presented all available information on product in an all-encompassing research report clearly and coherently as shown in figure 1. However the problem lies on the selection of the best method to produce styrene in large scale in order to satisfy the demand of the compound which expected to increase by years.
The current method for producing styrene in small scales utilizes ethylene as a starting material.This cyclic hydrocarbon is a colorless oily liquid that evaporates easily and has a sweet smell, although high concentrations confer a less pleasant odor. Styrene is the precursor to polystyrene and several copolymers. Approximately 15 billion pounds are produced annually. We plan to evaluate the economics for a process to manufacture styrene by dehydrogenating ethyl benzene. Figure 1 is a preliminary process flow diagram PFD for the styrene production process.
You should use this as a starting point. However, any change that you can justify that does not violate the laws of nature is allowed. Your job is to analyze the simplified styrene production process, to suggest profitable operating conditions, and to write a final report summarizing your findings. Note that optimization is NOT required in this design project.
Process Description Figure 1 is a preliminary process flow diagram PFD for the styrene production process. In this process, styrene is manufactured by the dehydrogenation of ethyl benzene in Unit The reaction is endothermic, reversible, and limited by equilibrium.
Reaction occurs at high temperature - K and low pressure 0.Greenhouse trade shows 2019
The raw material is ethyl benzene, which is preheated in E to a saturated vapor. This is then mixed with steam produced from the fired heater H to provide the heat of reaction and to serve as an inert diluent to help shift the reaction to the right.
The steam to ethyl benzene ratio entering R in Stream 6 ranges between 6 and Steam also tends to limit side reactions and helps to extend catalyst life by reducing coke formation on the catalyst. In reactor R the process uses a proprietary iron catalyst that minimizes but does not eliminate side reactions at higher temperatures.Brian lewis american dad
For simplicity, assume that the only side reaction that occurs in R is the hydrogenation of ethyl benzene to form toluene and methane. The selectivity of the toluene side reaction is a function of reactor temperature.
The reactor effluent, Stream 7, is cooled in E to produce steam and then enters a three-phase separator V The bottom phase of V is waste water stream Stream 11which must be decanted and sent for further processing before discharge. Stream 9 leaves the top of the separator and contains all the light gases methane and hydrogen and can be used as a fuel gas. Stream 10 contains most of the toluene, ethyl benzene, and styrene. Stream 10 flows through a pressure reducing valve and then enters a distillation train T and T where most of the toluene is removed at the top.Industry-specific and extensively researched technical data partially from exclusive partnerships.
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Show source. Show sources information Show publisher information. Chemical Industry. Revenue of the leading chemical companies in the United Kingdom UK Net income of the leading chemical companies in the United Kingdom UK Number of enterprises in the UK chemicals manufacturing industryby turnover. Workforce of the leading chemical companies in the United Kingdom UK As a Premium user you get access to the detailed source references and background information about this statistic.Netflix dmg
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Premium statistics. Read more. This statistic shows the production volume of styrene in the United States from to Inthe U.Discrete Optimization of a Styrene Production Process. Seth GrayUniversity of Mississippi Follow. This thesis will outline the two phases of my capstone design project for Chemical Engineering. The first goal was to simulate a styrene production process in Excel alongside my group members in ChE During this phase, we looked at startup of the process and the first 12 years of operation.
After the base case which included an isothermal reactor, the decision was made to switch to an adiabatic reactor based on net present value evaluations. Discrete optimization took place on the adiabatic reactor and the subsequent process. The second phase of my capstone project was the portion assigned to fulfill the requirements of the Sally McDonnell Barksdale Honors College Senior Thesis. To complete these requirements, my thesis group was tasked with simulating a fluidized bed reactor.
After completion of the calculations for the reactor we were able to do an economic analysis. The specific details of this process is the subject of discussion within my thesis. Honors Theses. Chemical Engineering Commons.
To view the content in your browser, please download Adobe Reader or, alternately, you may Download the file to your hard drive. Advanced Search. Privacy Copyright. Skip to main content. Abstract This thesis will outline the two phases of my capstone design project for Chemical Engineering.
Included in Chemical Engineering Commons. Digital Commons.See list of Faculty of Engineering Modified Services. The design encompasses battery selection, module configuration, battery pack sizing, and control logic design, while meeting standard industry performance targets.
The primary goals of the project are to increase the driving range, reduce the battery pack cost and preserve the lifetime of both batteries.
Design of Styrene Production Plant Essay Sample
The separation technology will control the ammonia content in the exhaust gases to below the smell threshold in a period of less than six hours. Finally, a full Hazard and Operability Study will be performed to assess the underlying safety risks.
Consequently, more electricity can be sold to the grid and lowering the amount of fuel gas will result in cost savings and reduced CO2 emissions into the atmosphere. Current design has focused on the reliability of the mechanical structure and selection is based on laboratory and pilot tests. The project goal is to design a separator based on a newly proposed model.
Pentane delivers higher performance than naphtha, but the high volatility of the compound poses a design challenge. Through injection of a polymer solution into an oil field, the mobility of the oil increases. Poor operation practices, such as using a high injection rate, needlessly promote mechanical degradation of the polymer. This will be accomplished by simulating the antibiotic release in vitro from the SF drug carrier as well as all associated biological implications. This project will result in a theoretical design of a SF drug carrier, upon which the scientific and medical community can expand to additional drugs such as growth factors and cancer treatments that require well-controlled release profiles.
The UV lamp in the reactor is susceptible to overheating which reduces the overall performance of the reactor. An empirical model of the UV system will be determined and used to develop a control strategy for the reactor. Response and recovery times will also be tested to further improve product quality.
The ultimate goal of the sensing material is to reduce human activity while under the influence. Once complete an economic analysis will be performed to determine feasibility. Group Members: Marina Gong, Farah Jamal, Adriana Ivey Our project is the development of a new process to extract bitumen from oil sand using microwave heating.Peugeot 207 speedometer not working
The current extraction process in use in Northern Alberta uses large volumes of hot water and produces unmanageable amounts of wastewater, referred to as tailings, which are difficult to treat and pose great risks to the environment.
Our process is designed to significantly reduce the water use associated with the current process, with the aid of an organic solvent, naphtha. The aim is to build an interactive learning experience that provides students exposure to industrial equipment and allows them to apply concepts they have been taught in various courses including heat and mass transfer, process control and food processing. After initial consultations and data collection are complete, a detailed procurement package for the plant will be provided to the Ideas Clinic.
Now, with growing energy demands and environmental concerns there is talk of converting carbon dioxide found in biogas to methane via a methanation reaction. This project focuses on developing a fully renewable methanation system at a dairy farm.Chemical Process Engineering - Styrene Plant Design
Through review of literature and cost-benefit analyses, the components for this system were selected. Detailed simulations, sizing of equipment and HAZOP analysis of the process were performed in determining the feasibility.
The current process for leachate treatment has environmental and economic drawbacks.
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